Spring and autumn annals book

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Spring and Autumn Annals - Wikipedia

It is one of the Five Classics Wujing of Confucianism. The work is a complete—though exceedingly sketchy—month-by-month account of significant events that occurred during the reign of 12 rulers of Lu, the native state of Confucius. The book is said to pass moral judgment on events in subtle ways, as when Confucius deliberately omits the title of a degenerate ruler. Among many who sought to discover profound meanings in the text was Dong Zhongshu c. Since Confucian scholars were the official interpreters of this and the other classics, the book was a means for imposing Confucian ideals on government.
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Warring States of China

The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one Since the text of this book is terse and its contents limited, a number of commentaries were composed to explain and expand on its meanings .

The Gongyang Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals

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Bibliographic Information

The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times. The Annals is the official chronicle of the State of Lu , and covers a year period from to BC. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged in annals form. The Annals records main events that occurred in Lu during each year, such as the accessions, marriages, deaths, and funerals of rulers, battles fought, sacrificial rituals observed, celestial phenomena considered ritually important, and natural disasters. The Spring and Autumn Annals was likely composed in the 5th century BC, and apart from the Bamboo Annals is the only such work to have survived from that period. The Annals is a succinct scribal record, with terse entries that record events such as the accessions, marriages, deaths, and funerals of rulers, battles fought, sacrificial records observed, natural disasters, and celestial phenomena believed to be of ritual significance. Some modern scholars have questioned whether the entries were ever originally intended as a chronicle for human readers, and have suggested that the Annals entries may have been intended as "ritual messages directed primarily to the ancestral spirits.

Anonymous Korean metalworkers of the 14th century were the world's first printers of movable type, predating Gutenberg's famous bible by over 70 years. The survival of a Buddhist text dating from , printed at a provincial temple in south Korea, suggests that Korean artisans had mastered the basic techniques of casting and setting metal type long before the patronage of King Sejong reigned resulted in handsome large editions such as the pages shown here. At the court of King Sejong, cast bronze types were used to print works that ministers and scholars needed for their political and ethical reform programme. Sejong established the 'Hall of Worthies' as a kind of think-tank on the place of Confucian ideals in Korea. The 'Worthies', high-ranking scholars and officials, needed wide access to Chinese texts which could be imported from China only with difficulty. Court officials therefore persevered in improving type design and setting methods until high-quality type like the 'kabin' face shown here was achieved.

The entries do not only list the reign year of the individual dukes of Lu and the months, but mid-level headlines are inserted indicating the seasons, which gave the chronicle its title. The entries in the chronicle are very brief and concise and not easy to understand without special knowledge of the historical background. A part of the entries is also missing. The Spring and Autumn Chronicle does not only speak of events in the state of Lu itself but it also records a great number of events which took place in other regional states of that period. Thus it can supply quite a detailed picture of interstate activities during the early Eastern Zhou, in peace and in wartime.

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