Book gills and book lungs

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book gills and book lungs

Respiration: The tracheal triple whammy

In this article we will discuss about the Respiration in Scorpion:- 1. Respiratory Structure in Scorpion 2. Mechanism of Respiration in Scorpion. This oldest land-living arthropod belongs to the class Arachnida. They are nocturnal and spend daytime within sands, crevices, holes, and under logs and stones. Book lungs are primitive respiratory organs and are modified from book-gills. However, in contrast to book gills of prawn, book lungs are internal and an adaptation associated with the migration of arachnids to a terrestrial environment.
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Vodcast G Re-Writting The Book on Book Lungs

Book lung , form of respiratory organ found in certain air-breathing arachnid arthropods scorpions and some spiders. Each book lung consists of a series of thin plates that are highly vascular i. These plates extend into an internal pouch formed by the external skeleton that opens to the exterior by a small slit.

Process of Respiration in Scorpions | Class Arachnida

Defining characteristics? Fossil history: The oldest known arachnid is the Palaeotarbus jerami , from about million years ago in the Silurian period, and had a triangular Cephalothorax and segmented abdomen, as well as eight legs and a pair of pedipalps. Attercopus fimbriunguis from million years ago in the Devonian period, bears the earliest known silk-producing spigots, and was therefore hailed as a spider. However these spigots may have been mounted on the underside of the abdomen rather than on spinnerets, which are modified appendages and whose mobility is important in the building of webs. Hence Attercopus and the similar arachnid Permarachne may not have been true spiders, and probably used silk for lining nests or producing egg-cases rather than for building webs.

A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders. Each of these organs is found inside an open ventral abdominal, air-filled cavity atrium and connects with the surroundings through a small opening for the purpose of respiration. Book lungs are not related to the lungs of modern land-dwelling vertebrates. Their name describes their structure. Stacks of alternating air pockets and tissue filled with hemolymph the arthropod equivalent of blood give them an appearance similar to a "folded" book.

A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange and is found in arachnids , such as scorpions and spiders. Each of these organs is found inside a ventral abdominal cavity and connects with the surroundings through a small opening. Book lungs are not related to the lungs of modern land-dwelling vertebrates. Their name describes their structure. Stacks of alternating air pockets and hemolymph-filled tissue give them an appearance similar to a "folded" book. Their number varies from just one pair in most spiders to four pairs in scorpions. Sometimes the book lungs can be absent and the gas exchange is performed by the thin walls inside the cavity instead, with its surface area increased by branching into the body as thin tubes called tracheae.

Related groups of terms

Prashant P. The internal phylogeny of Chelicerata and the attendant evolutionary scenario of arachnid terrestrialization have a long and contentious history.

Metrics details. The transmission electron microscope TEM is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills SEM and scorpion book lungs TEM are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface.

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